Dog training collars and methods

Inventor –¬†Gerald J. Gonda,¬†John Vancza, Jr.

Date of Patent – 13/05/1980

Abstract
In order to train a dog not to bark, a device attached to the dog’s collar emits a characteristic sound whenever he barks, which sound may be accompanied on some occasions by a light electrical shock acting to condition the dog to dislike the sound more than he otherwise would.
Patent
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present invention provides improved devices
and methods for training a dog not to bark, by a condi
tioning effect which relies in large part on the emission
of an unpleasant sound when the dog barks. The effect 20
of the sound can be enhanced by accompanying it on
some but perferably not all barking occasions with a
light electrical shocking of the animal. This shocking in
association with the sound preconditions the dog to
dislike the sound more than he otherwise would, and to 25
thus react better to the sound alone on subsequent actu
ations than if he had never felt the shock in association
with the sound. In order to avoid excessive use of the
shocking circuit, it may be designed to require manual
resetting by the trainer after each cycle of shocking 30
operation, so that each time the circuit is reset it applies
a shock with the sound only once (or another limited
number of times), following which the device returns to
a sound-only condition until again purposely reset.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
The above and other features and objects of the in
vention will be better understood from the following detailed description of the typical embodiments illus
trated in the accompanying drawings, in which: 40
FIG. 1 is a front view of an automatic dog training collar assembly constructed in accordance with the
invention;
FIG. 2 illustrates the electronic circuit of the FIG. 1
device; 45
FIG. 3 is a front elevational view of a variational
form of the invention; FIG. 4 is a block diagram representing the circuit of
the FIG. 3 device; and
FIG. 5 illustrates diagrammatically a remote con- 50
trolled form of the invention.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED
EMBODIMENTS
The device 10 illustrated in FIG. 1 includes a dog 55
collar 11 adapted to be placed about the neck of a dog, and having two opposite end portions 12 and 13 adapted
to be secured together in any convenient manner, as by
a buckle 14 carried by end 12 and engageable with
openings formed in the end 13. The collar 11 carries a 60
unit 15, having a case 16 within which the electronic
circuitry 17 of the dog training device is contained. The
case 16 is secured to the collar in any appropriate man
ner, either permanently or removably, and preferably
by provision of a pair of rivets, headed screws of other 65
fasteners represented at 18 extending through openings in the collar and connecting into the case. The circuitry 17 includes a microphone 19 contained within the case
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and facing inwardly toward the inside of the collar to
receive sound from the dog’s throat when he barks. To
facilitate reception of and response to this sound, the
case and collar may have openings 20 opposite the mi
crophone and through which the barking sound can
pass to the microphone. The circuitry also includes a
sound emitting device 21 contained within the case, preferably taking the form of a vibrator type buzzer
which when energized produces a high intensity sound
distasteful to the animal. This sound produced by the
buzzer may leave the unit 15 through an opening 22
formed in an end wall of the unit opposite the buzzer
and across which a screen 122 extends. The case 16 may typically be externally cylindrical about a longitudinal
axis 116 of the device. The electronic circuitry within
the case is electrically energized by a preferably re
chargeable battery 23 contained in the case.
Referring now to the circuit of FIG. 2, the micro
phone 19 is of the dynamic type, acting to produce a
small audio frequency electrical signal in lines leading
to the base and emitter respectively of a first transistor
Q1. A coupling capacitor C1 is connected into the line
from the microphone to the transistor base. Transistor
Q1 and a second transistor Q2, connected as illustrated, form with the related resistors R1, R2, R3 and R4, and
capacitor C3, a conventional two stage amplifier, which
amplifies the signal from microphone 19 and delivers it
as an amplified audio frequency signal through a cou
pling capacitor C2. The resistor R4 and capacitor C3 of
the two stage amplifier determine the range of frequen cies to which the amplifier circuit may respond, and are
preferably of values giving a frequency response range
from 0.5 to 2.5 kilohertz. This range includes most of
the frequencies present in a barking sound.
The amplified audio frequency signal passed by cou
pling capacitor C2 is conducted to the base of a third
transistor Q3, and is also conducted through a resistor
R5 to the base of a fourth transistor Q4. The emitter of
transistor Q3 is connected through a biasing resistor R6
to the positive side of battery 23, while the collector of
transistor Q3 is connected through resistor R7 to
ground and the opposite side of the battery. Q3 re
sponds to or is turned on by the first negative going signal of the audio frequency signal delivered to its base,
to thereby conduct current between the emitter and
collector of transistor Q3 and apply power to a capaci
tor C4 connected between the positive power source
and the base of transistor Q4 and emitter of transistor
Q3. Such application of power to capacitor C4 through transistor Q3 commences charging of the capacitor through resistor R7. This RC circuit consisting of ca
pacitor C4 and resistor R7 has a relatively long time
constant desirably of about 0.1 seconds, so that the
potential applied by capacitor C4 between the emitter
and base of transistor Q4 gradually increases over an
extended period of time. After only a relatively small
portion of this extended charging time of capacitor C4, the potential applied to the base of transistor Q4 reaches
a value acting to turn on the transistor Q4 and produce
a direct current signal or pulse of extended duration in
line 24 leading from the collector of transistor Q4. As an
example, if the full charging time of capacitor C4 is 0.1
seconds, the transistor Q4 may be turned on after capac itor C4 has been charging for a period less than 0.05
seconds, say for example 0.04 seconds. The direct cur
rent output signal in line 24 will then continue for the
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remainder of the charging period of the capacitor, and
through its relatively long discharging period (10 sec
onds).
As soon as the transistor Q4 is turned on and pro duces a signal in line 24, this signal acts immediately to
cause energization of the previously mentioned buzzer
21, which produces a shrill sound audible to the animal, and desirably of a frequency of say about 3 kilohertz.
Such energization of the buzzer is attained by conduc
tion of the signal in line 24 through resistor R10 and an
amplifier represented diagrammatically at 25 to the base
of a transistor Q6 which is connected in a Darlington
type circuit with a second transistor Q7. The collector
and emitter of transistor Q7 are connected into the
buzzer circuit, to energize it. It is contemplated that in
some instances the amplifier 25 may be omitted, though it is preferred that the amplifier be present in the circuit
in order to insure effective response of the circuit to a
barking sound even through the potential of battery 23
may decrease somewhat.
The closure of the circuit through transistor Q4 to
line 24 in addition to commencing operation of buzzer
21, also has an additional effect of applying potential
across an RC circuit, consisting of resistor R9 and ca
pacitor C5, connected as shown to transistor Q5. A
resistor R8 is connected across the RC circuit, and
functions as a biasing resistor. As will be understood, capacitor C5 commences to charge at the same time
that buzzer 21 is placed in operation, and after a prede termined timed interval reaches a condition in which
the potential applied to the base of transistor Q5 is great enough to turn that transistor on, and connect the point 26 between resistor R10 and amplifier 25 to ground. When point 26 is thus grounded, this turns off transis
tors Q6 and Q7 and the buzzer 21. The time constant of
the RC circuit consisting of resistor R9 and capacitor C5 in this way determines the length of emission of the
high intensity sound produced by buzzer 21. This time
constant is preferably at least about of a second, and
desirably at least about 0.8 seconds. The closure of the
circuit through the collector and emitter of transistor
Q5 also permits capacitor C5 to discharge, but its dis
charging circuit is such as to require a predetermined timed interval for the charge on the capacitor to de
crease to a value low enough to cause opening of the
circuit through the collector and emitter of transistor
Q5 and thus permit re-energization of the buzzer
through transistors Q6 and Q7. This timed interval is
preferably considerably greater than the interval re
quired for charging the capacitor to the value for turn
ing transistor Q5 on. More specifically, the time re
quired for decay of the charge on capacitor C5 to a
value turning transistor Q5 offshould be more than one
second, and desirably about two seconds.
While it will be understood that the solid state elec
tronic circuitry of FIG. 2 may be varied, and the values
of the different components can be changed, we will, in
order to assure a full disclosure of the invention, set
forth below the types of transistors, and capacitor and
resistor values, which may be employed in a typical circuit connected as shown in FIG. 2:
The Component Type or Value
Transistor Q1 Type 2N2540
Transistor Q2 Type 2N2540
Transistor Q3 Type 2N5138
Transistor Q4 Type 2N5138
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-continued
The Component Type or Value
Transistor Q5 Type 2N5133
Transistor Q6 Type 2N5134
Transistor Q7 Type 2N4921
Capacitor Cl .00 microfarad
Capacitor C2 .047 microfarad
Capacitor C3 .1 microfarad
O microfarad
77 microfarad
Capacitor C4
Capacitor C5
Resistor R1 330K
Resistor R2 3.9 megohm
Resistor R3 100K
Resistor R4 68K
Resistor R5 1 megohm
Resistor R6 23OK
Resistor R7 10K
Resistor R8 OOK
Resistor R9 27K
Resistor R10 470 ohm
Battery 23 6 volt
In placing the device 10 of FIG. 1 in use, the first step is of course to position the collar 11 about the dog’s neck, with the unit 15 closely adjacent the animal, and
with the microphone 19 positioned to receive the bar
king sounds from the animal’s throat through openings 20. When the dog barks, the barking sound acts through microphone 19 to produce an amplified audio frequency
output at the right side of capacitor C2, and the first
negative going fluctuation of this audio signal output
turns transistor Q3 on to commence charging of capaci
tor C4, as discussed. After a predetermined time inter
val (0.04 seconds when the components have the values
set forth above), capacitor C4 turns transistor Q4 on, to
produce a direct current signal in line 24, which is am
plified by amplifier 25 and then acts to immediately turn
transistors Q6 and Q7 on, thereby commencing opera
ton of buzzer 21 after the timed interval determined by the RC circuit composed of capacitor C4 and resistor
R5. The capacitor C4 and its resistor R5, in preventing energization of the buzzer until Q3 has been turned on
for a predetermined interval, prevent unwanted re
sponse of the circuit to instantaneous or short duration
knocking or tapping sounds which may occur when the
animal causes the unit 15 to strike against a wall, furni
ture or other object. In this way, the circuit will re
spond only when the dog barks.
At the same time that the buzzer is turned on, capaci
tor C5 commences to charge through resistor R9, and
this timing circuit ultimately turns transistor Q5 on after
a predetermined timed interval (0.8 seconds when the
values are as discussed) following initial energization of
the buzzer. Thus, buzzer 21 turns on after continuation
of the barking sound for 0.8 seconds, and turns off after
the buzzer has been in operation for a second 0.8 sec
onds. After the buzzer is turned off, a further timed
interval (2 seconds in the discussed circuit) must elapse before transistor Q5 will turn off and permit re-energi
zation of the buzzer.
After the dog has barked a few times, and each time
been subjected to the intense sound emitted by buzzer
22, he becomes conditioned by the unpleasant sound to
avoid barking. The collar may then be removed from
the animal, who will thereafter refrain from barking excessively because of his recollection of the sound
produced by the training collar.
FIGS. 3 and 4 show a variational type of bark trainer
10a which is very similar to the device 10 of FIGS. 1
and 2 except that the device of FIGS. 3 and 4 is adapted
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to apply a light electrical shock to the animal in con
junction with the emitted sound on some but preferably
not all occasions when the animal barks. In FIG. 3, the
device 15a secured to collar 11a includes a typically cylindrical housing 16a similar to housing 16 of FIG. 1
and secured to the collar by two spaced metal fasteners
18a. These fasteners extend through apertures in the
collar and connect rigidly to the case 16a, and also are
electrically connected within the case to the electronic
circuitry therein to function as terminals for conducting
the shocking current to the animal. In order to assure
proper contact with the animal, the terminals 18a may have projecting portions 118a long enough to extend
through the animal’s fur and contact his skin.
As in the first form of the invention, the case contains
a microphone 19a which receives the barking sounds
through apertures 20a formed in the collar. Also, the
case contains a buzzer 21a which emits sound through
an end opening 22a of the case. The battery 23a may be
rechargeable through terminals 123a projecting to the
outside of the case for attachment to a connector of a
charging circuit. Besides the elements thus far de
scribed, the case 16a also contains the other components of the circuit illustrated in FIG.4, including specifically
a reset switch 27 which is actuable by manual depres sion of a pushbutton element 28 projecting to the out
side of the case, and which acts when the pushbutton is
depressed to cause energization of the shocking termi
nals on the next successive operation of the buzzer.
With reference now to the block diagram of FIG. 4, it is noted that the signal produced by microphone 19a
is first fed to a pre-amplifier 29, and after amplification is delivered to a rectifier and filter 30 which produces a
direct current output in the line 31 each time that a
barking sound is picked up by the microphone. This
direct current signal is delivered to an amplifier 32 and
a duration timer 33, with the latter functioning to turn
the amplifier on only after continuance of the barking sound for a predetermined interval of time, say for ex
ample one second. Thus, as in the previously discussed
circuit, any shorter duration knocking noises or the like
sensed by the microphone will be rejected and not
transmitted through amplifier 32, to in this way prevent
unwanted actuation of the buzzer by sounds other than
a somewhat extended barking sound. When the DC
pulse continues for the predetermined interval, timer 33
turns on amplifier 32, to conduct an amplified signal to
an output power amplifier 34, which energizes the
buzzer 21a to emit its characteristic high pitch sound.
The output signal from amplifier 32 is also conducted to
a switch 35 controlled by the manually operated reset
switch 27 through a flip-flop. 36. If prior to a particular barking occasion the switch 27 has been manually reset
by pressing element 28, the flip-flop. 36 will by such
actuation of switch 27 be reset to a condition in which
it turns switch 35 on, to conduct the signal from ampli fier 32 to an inverting amplifier 37, and then to a one
shot multivibrator 38. This one-shot then delivers a
timed control signal through a line 39 to an oscillator
40, which produces an alternating current output deliv
ered through an output amplifier 41 and voltage step-up
transformer 42 to the shocking terminals 18a. The volt
age at terminals 18a is sufficiently high to be felt by and
be distasteful to the animal, but is not high enough, or
capable of producing enough current flow, to harm the
animal in any way. For example, the output at terminals
18a may typically be about 3000 volts, typically at a
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frequency between about 400 and 500 cycles per sec
ond.
The shocking potential at terminals 18a continues for
the period that the one-shot remains in its actuated state,
and is turned off by the one-shot at the end of that
period (preferably after a shocking interval of 80 milli
seconds). A duration timer 43 functioning as a fail-safe
device acts to turn off the oscillator 40 if for any reason
the one-shot does not do so. To achieve this result,
timer 43 receives a signal from the one-shot multivibra
tor 38 simultaneously with the delivery of the signal
through line 39 which turns on oscillator 40. After a
predetermined timed delay interval following energiza
tion of oscillator 40, the duration timer 43 delivers a
signal through line 44 to the oscillator which will turn it
off it is not already off. If the one-shot has an 80 milli
second cycle, the delay period of timer 43 may typically
be somewhat longer, say 90 milliseconds, so that on
normal operation the timer 43 never really
4,202,293 7
timed characteristics sound from the buzzer in unit 15b,
and the other of which will cause the emission of a
timed characteristic sound followed immediately by the
application of a light electric shock.
While certain specific embodiments of the present invention have been disclosed as typical, the invention
is of course not limited to these particular forms, but
rather is applicable broadly to all such variations as fall
within the scope of the appended claims.
I claim:
1. A dog training device comprising:
a case adapted to be carried by a dog collar;
sound producing means carried by said case and
adapted while the device is being worn by a dog to
emit a sound intended to urge the dog to stop bar
king;
shocking means carried by said case and operable to
electrically shock a dog wearing the device; and
control means operable to actuate said shocking
means to shock the dog on an initial actuation of
said sound producing means but not on subsequent actuations thereof, said control means including
means for selectively resetting said shocking
means, if necessary, to shock the dog on a next
successive actuation of said sound producing
means following each reset operation, but not on
other actuations thereof.
2. A dog training device as recited in claim 1, in
which said control means include a receiver carried by said case and a transmitter acting remotely through said
receiver to control operation of said sound producing
means and said shocking means.
3. A dog training device as recited in claim 1 wherein
said sound producing means includes electrical buzzer
means and said sound intended to urge the dog to stop barking is a high intensity sound audible to both humans
and dogs. 4. A dog training device comprising:
a case adapted to be carried by a dog collar;
sound actuated means responsive to barking of a dog wearing said device;
sound producing means carried by said case and oper able automatically by said sound actuated means to
emit a training sound when the dog barks;
shocking means carried by said case and operable to
electrically shock a dog wearing the device; and
controls means operable to actuate said shocking
means to shock the dog on an initial actuation of
said sound producing means but not on subsequent actuations thereof, said control means including
means for selectively resetting said shocking
means, if necessary, to shock the dog on a next
successive actuation of said sound producing
means following each reset operation, but not on
other actuations thereof.
5. A dog training device as recited in claim 4, in
which said sound actuated means include a microphone carried by the case at a location to respond to barking of
the dog, and electrical circuitry operable by said micro
phone to commence operation of said sound producing
means when the dog barks.
6. A dog training device as recited in claim 4, in
which said sound actuated means are constructed to
commence operation of said sound producing means
only after continuance of a barking sound for a prede termined interval long enough to prevent unwanted
actuation of the sound producing means by instanta
neous contacting of the device with an object.
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8.
7. A dog training device, as recited in claim 4, in
which said sound actuated means include a microphone carried by said case and responsive to a barking sound,
and a timing circuit controlled by signals from said
microphone and acting to actuate said sound producing
means to emit said training sound only after continu
ance of bark induced signals from the microphone for a
predetermined interval.
8. A dog training device as recited in claim 4, in
which said sound actuated means include means opera ble upon commencement of emission of said training sound to continue emission of the training sound for a
predetermined interval and then terminate it.
9. A dog training device as recited in claim 4, in
which said sound producing means include circuitry automatically operable upon cessation of the emission
of said training sound by said sound producing means to
prevent reactuation of said sound producing means and
re-commencement of the training sound for an interval
of time.
10. A dog training device as recited in claim 4, in
which said sound producing means include an electri
cally energized sound emitter, solid state switching circuitry actuable by said sound actuated means to turn
on said sound emitter, and an electrical timing circuit
including a capacitor which commences to charge when said solid state switching circuitry turns the sound
emitter on and which acts upon attainment of a prede termined charge in the capacitor to actuate said control
circuitry to turn the sound emitter off.
11. A dog training device as recited in claim 10, in
which said timing circuit acts after the sound emitter
has been turned off to prevent re-energization of the
sound emitter for an interval of time and until the
charge on said capacitor has decayed to a predeter
mined level.
12. A dog training device as recited in claim 4, in
which said sound actuated means include a microphone for producing an audio frequency signal when the dog barks, and circuitry responsive to said audio frequency signal to produce an essentially direct current output of
extended duration as compared with the fluctuations of
said audio frequency signal, said sound producing
means being responsive to said essentially direct current
signal to produce said training sound.
13. A dog training device as recited in claim 4, in
which said sound actuated means include a microphone responsive to a barking sound, and amplifier for ampli fying an audio frequency signal from said microphone,
a capacitor, a solid state switching element responsive
to initiation of an audio frequency signal from said am
plifier to close a charging circuit to said capacitor, a
second solid state switching element responsive to at
tainment of a predetermined charge in said capacitor to
produce an essentially direct current signal of extended
duration for controlling said sound producing means, said sound producing means including an electrically
energized sound emitter, a solid state control circuit for
said sound emitter responsive to commencement of said
essentially direct current signal to energize the sound
emitter and commence emission of said sound, an addi
tional switching element, and a timing circuit including
a capacitor connected to said second switching element
to commence charging of the capacitor when said es
sentially direct current signal commences and acting
upon attainment of a predetermined charge to actuate
said additional switching element in a relation causing it
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to actuate said output control circuitry to turn off the
sound emitter.
14. A dog training device as recited in claim 4,
wherein said shocking means are operable to automati
cally shock the dog when he barks, and including timer
means controlling the duration of said training sound
and of said shock and giving the shock a shorter dura
tion than the training sound.
15. A dog training device as recited in claim 4,
wherein said sound producing means includes electrical
buzzer means and said training sound is a high intensity
sound audible to both humans and dogs. 16. A dog training device comprising:
a dog collar;
a case carried by said collar;
a microphone carried by said case responsive to bar
king of a dog wearing said device;
means operable by said microphone to produce a
control signal if a barking sound continues for a
predetermined interval;
sound producing means responsive to said signal to
emit a predetermined characteristic sound for a
timed interval each time the dog barks;
shocking terminals carried by said case for contacting
and applying an electrical shock to the dog; and
circuitry operable in a predetermined active condi
tion to respond to said signal and energize said
shocking terminals on a first actuation of said
sound producing means, and operable to automati
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cally de-energize said shocking means for subse
quent actuations of said sound producing means; said circuitry including manually actuated reset
means for selectively re-actuating said circuitry to
said active condition, if necessary, from an inactive
condition in which it will not respond to said signal and will not energize the shocking terminals when
the dog barks.
17. A dog training device as recited in claim 16, in
which said circuitry includes an oscillator for energiz ing said terminals, and a one-shot multivibrator opera ble by said signal to turn on said oscillator for a prede termined timed interval; said reset means including a
manually actuated reset switch, a flip-flop actuable
from a first state to a second state by said reset switch, and a control switch actuable by the flip-flop to pass said signal to the multivibrator; said multivibrator being actuable by said signal to return the flip-flop from said
second state to said first state.
18. The method of training a dog that comprises: attaching a training device to the dog’s neck;
causing said device to automatically emit a character
istic sound when the dog barks while the device is
carried by the dog; electrically shocking the dog by said device at ap proximately the time of the initial emission of said
sound but not on subsequent emissions of said
sound; and selectively resetting said device, if necessary, to
shock the dog on the next succeeding emission of

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